Workplace Emotions, Attitudes, and Stress

BUS7000 Organizational Behavior &Theory Week 3 Dr Jenne Meyer 1 6-1 Article Analysis 2 4-2 Chapter 4 Workplace

Emotions, Attitudes, and Stress McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright 2013 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Emotions Defined Psychological, behavioral, and physiological episodes that create a state of readiness. Most emotions occur without our awareness Two features of all emotions: All have some degree of activation All have core affect evaluate that something is good/bad

4-4 Types of Emotions 4-5 Attitudes versus Emotions Attitudes Judgments Judgments about about an an attitude attitude object object Based Based mainly mainly on on

rational rational logic logic Usually Usually stable stable for for days days or or longer longer Emotions Experiences Experiences related related to to an an attitude attitude object object

Based Based on on innate innate and and learned learned responses responses to to environment environment Usually Usually experienced experienced for for seconds seconds or or less less 4-6

Traditional Model of Attitudes Purely cognitive approach Beliefs: established perceptions of attitude object Feelings: calculation of good or bad based on beliefs about the attitude object Behavioral intentions: calculated motivation to act in response to the attitude object Problem: Ignores important role of emotions in shaping attitudes 4-7 Attitudes: From Beliefs to Behavior Perceived Environment

Cognitive process Emotional process Beliefs Attitude Emotional Episodes Feelings Behavioral Intentions Behavior 4-8 Emotions, Attitudes, and Behavior

How emotions influence attitudes: 1. Feelings and beliefs are influenced by cumulative emotional episodes (not just evaluation of beliefs) 2. We listen in on our emotions Potential conflict between cognitive and emotional processes Emotions also directly affect behavior e.g. facial expression 4-9 Generating Positive Emotions at Work

LeasePlan USA and other companies apply the dual cognitive-emotional attitude process. They actively create more positive than negative emotional episodes, which produce more positive work attitudes. 4-10 Cognitive Dissonance

A condition whereby we perceive an inconsistency between our beliefs, feelings, and behavior. This inconsistency generates emotions (e.g., feeling hypocritical) that motivate us to increase consistency. Easier to increase consistency by changing feelings and beliefs, rather than change behavior. 4-11 Emotional Labor Defined Effort, planning and control needed to express organizationally desired emotions during interpersonal transactions. Higher in job requiring: Frequent/lengthy emotion display Variety of emotions display

Intense emotions display 4-12 Emotional Labor Across Cultures Displaying or hiding emotions varies across cultures Minimal emotional expression and monotonic voice in Ethiopia, Japan, Austria Encourage emotional expression in Kuwait, Egypt, Spain, Russia 4-13 Emotional Labor Challenges

Difficult to display expected emotions accurately, and to hide true emotions Emotional dissonance Conflict between true and required emotions More stressful with surface acting Less stressful with deep acting 4-14 Emotional Intelligence Defined Ability to perceive and express emotion, assimilate emotion in thought, understand and reason with emotion, and regulate

emotion in oneself and others 4-15 Model of Emotional Intelligence Self (personal competence) Other (social competence) Recognition of emotions Self-awareness Awareness of others emotions

Regulation of emotions Self-management Management of others emotions 4-16 Emotional Intelligence Hierarchy Highest Lowest Management of Managing other peoples others emotions emotions

Awareness of others emotions Perceiving and understanding the meaning of others emotions Selfmanagement Managing our own emotions Self-awareness Perceiving and understanding the meaning of your own emotions 4-17 Improving Emotional Intelligence

Emotional intelligence is a set of abilities/skills Can be learned, especially through coaching EI increases with age -- maturity 4-18 Job Satisfaction A person's evaluation of his or her job and work context

An appraisal of the perceived job characteristics, work environment, and emotional experience at work 4-19 EVLN: Responses to Dissatisfaction Exit Leaving the situation Quitting, transferring Voice Changing the situation Problem solving, complaining Loyalty

Patiently waiting for the situation to improve Neglect Reducing work effort/quality Increasing absenteeism 4-20 Job Satisfaction and Performance Happy workers are somewhat more productive workers, but: 1. General attitude is a poor predictor of specific behaviors 2. Job satisfaction effect on performance is lower when employees have less control over output

3. Reverse explanation: Job performance affects satisfaction, but only when rewarded 4-21 Service Profit Chain at Clydesdale Bank Clydesdale Bank in Scotland improved customer service by applying the service profit chain model. It gave its contact center employees more positive experiences at work. 4-22 Service Profit Chain Model Job satisfaction increases customer satisfaction and profitability because: Organizationa

l practices Employee satisfaction and commitment Employee retention 1. Job satisfaction affects mood, leading to positive behaviors toward customers 2. Job satisfaction reduces employee turnover, resulting in more consistent and familiar service

Employee motivation and behavior Service quality Customer satisfaction /perceived value Customer loyalty and referrals Company profitability and growth

4-23 Organizational Commitment Affective commitment Emotional attachment to, identification with, and involvement in an organization Continuance commitment Calculative attachment stay because too costly to quit 4-24 Building Affective

Commitment Justice/ Justice/ Support Support Apply humanitarian values Support employee wellbeing Shared Shared Values Values Values Values congruence congruence Trust Trust

Employees Employees trust trust org org leaders leaders Job Job security security supports supports trust trust Organizational Organizational Comprehension Comprehension Know firms past/present/future Open and rapid communication Employee Employee

Involvement Involvement Employees feel part of company Involvement demonstrates trust 4-25 What is Stress? Adaptive response to situations perceived as challenging or threatening to well-being Prepares us to adapt to hostile or noxious environmental conditions Eustress vs. distress

4-26 General Adaptation Syndrome Stage 1 Alarm Reaction Stage 2 Resistance Stage 3 Exhaustion Normal Level of Resistance 4-27 Consequences of Distress

Physiologic al Cardiovascular disease, hypertension, headaches Behavioral Work performance, accidents, absenteeism, aggression, poor decisions Psychologic al Dissatisfaction, moodiness, depression, emotional fatigue 4-28 What are Stressors?

Stressors are the causes of stress -- any environmental condition that places a physical or emotional demand on the person. Some common workplace stressors include: Harassment an incivility Work overload Low task control 4-29 Psychological Harassment Repeated and hostile or unwanted conduct, verbal comments, actions or gestures, that affect an employee's dignity or psychological or physical

integrity and that result in a harmful work environment for the employee. 4-30 4-30 Work Overload and Task Control Stressors Work Overload Working more hours, more intensely than one can cope Affected by globalization, consumerism, ideal worker norm Task Control

Due to lack control over how and when tasks are performed Stress increases with responsibility 4-31 Individual Differences in Stress Individual differences that minimize distress: Better physical health exercise, lifestyle Appropriate stress coping strategies Lower neuroticism Higher extraversion Positive self-concept Lower workaholism 4-32 Managing Work-Related

Stress Remove the stressor Minimize/remove stressors Work/life balance initiatives Withdraw from the stressor Vacation, rest breaks Change stress perceptions Positive self-concept, humor Control stress consequences Healthy lifestyle, fitness, wellness

Receive social support 4-33 Chapter 4 Foundations of Employee Motivation McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright 2013 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Motivation Defined The forces within a person

that affect the direction, intensity, and persistence of voluntary behavior. Exerting particular effort level (intensity), for a certain amount of time (persistence), toward a particular goal (direction). 4-35 Employee Engagement Individuals emotional and cognitive (rational) motivation, particularly a focused, intense, persistent,

and purposive effort toward work-related goals. High absorption in the work. High self-efficacy believe you have the ability, role clarity, and resources to get the job done 4-36 Drives and Needs Drives (primary needs, fundamental needs, innate motives)

Hardwired brain characteristics (neural states) that energize individuals to maintain balance by correcting deficiencies Prime movers of behavior by activating emotions Needs Goal-directed forces that people experience. Drive-generated emotions directed toward goals Goals formed by self-concept, social norms, and experience Self-concept, social norms, and past experience Drives and Emotions Needs Decisions and Behavior

4-37 Maslows Needs Hierarchy Theory Need to know Selfactualization Need for beauty Seven categories five in a hierarchy -- capture most needs Lowest unmet need is strongest. When satisfied, next higher need becomes primary

motivator Self-actualization -- a growth need because people desire more rather than less of it when satisfied 4-38 Esteem Belongingness Safety Physiological Whats Wrong with Needs Hierarchy Models? Maslows theory lacks empirical

support People have different hierarchies Needs change more rapidly than Maslow stated Hierarchy models wrongly assume that everyone has the same (universal) needs hierarchy Instead, needs hierarchies are shaped by persons own values and self-concept Abraham Maslow 4-39 What Maslow Contributed to Motivation Theory

Holistic perspective Integrative view of needs Humanistic perspective Influence of social dynamics, not just instinct Positive perspective Pay attention to strengths (growth needs), not just deficiencies Abraham Maslow 4-40

Learned Needs Theory Needs are amplified or suppressed through self-concept, social norms, and past experience Therefore, needs can be learned strengthened through reinforcement, learning, and social conditions 4-41 Three Learned Needs Need for achievement Need to reach goals, take responsibility Want reasonably challenging goals

Need for affiliation Desire to seek approval, conform to others wishes, avoid conflict Effective executives have lower need for social approval Need for power Desire to control ones environment Personalized versus socialized power 4-42 Four-Drive Theory Drive to Acquire Drive to take/keep objects and experiences Basis of hierarchy and status Drive to Bond

Drive to form relationships and social commitments Basis of social identity Drive to Learn Drive to satisfy curiosity and resolve conflicting information Drive to Defend Need to protect ourselves Reactive (not proactive) drive Basis of fight or flight 4-43 How Four Drives Affect Motivation 1. Four drives determine which emotions are

automatically tagged to incoming information 2. Drives generate independent and often competing emotions that demand our attention 3. Mental skill set relies on social norms, personal values, and experience to transform drivebased emotions into goal-directed choice and effort 4-44 Four Drive Theory of Motivation Drive to Acquire Drive to Bond

Drive to Learn Social norms Personal values Past experience Mental Mental skill skill set set resolves resolves competing drive demands competing drive demands

Goal-directed Goal-directed choice choice and and effort effort Drive to Defend Social norms, personal values, and experience transform drive-based emotions into goal-directed choice and effort 5-45 Implications of Four Drive Theory Provide a balanced opportunity for employees to fulfill all four drives employees continually seek fulfilment of drives

avoid having conditions support one drive more than others 4-46 Expectancy Theory of Motivation E-to-P Expectancy P-to-O Expectancy Outcomes & Valences Outcome 1 + or - Effort

Performance Outcome 2 + or - Outcome 3 + or - 4-47 Increasing E-to-P and Pto-O Expectancies Increasing E-to-P Expectancies

Develop employee competencies Match employee competencies to jobs Provide role clarity and sufficient resources Provide behavioral modeling Increasing P-to-O Expectancies Measure performance accurately Increase rewards with desired outcomes Explain how rewards are linked to performance 4-48 Increasing Outcome Valences Ensure that rewards are valued

Individualize rewards Minimize countervalent outcomes 4-49 A-B-Cs of Behavior Modification Antecedents Behavior Consequences What happens before behavior What person says or does

What happens after behavior Machine operator turns off power Co-workers thank operator Example Warning light flashes 4-50 Four OB Mod Consequences

Positive reinforcement any consequence that, when introduced, increases/maintains the target behavior. Punishment any consequence that decreases the target behavior. Negative reinforcement any consequence that, when removed, increases/maintains target behavior. Extinction when no consequence occurs, resulting in less of the target behavior

4-51 Reinforcing the Healthy Walk The British municipality of Stokeon-Trent, Staffordshire, issued pedometers to its staff and encouraged them to do more walking each day. The pedometers provide instant feedback and positive reinforcement to motivate longer walks. Some organizations also reinforce walking with financial rewards. 4-52 Behavior Modification in Practice Behavior modification applications:

every day to influence behavior of others company programs attendance, safety, etc. Behavior modification problems: Reward inflation Variable ratio schedule viewed as gambling Ignores relevance of cognitive processes in motivation and learning 4-53 Social Cognitive Theory Learning behavior outcomes

Observing consequences that others experience Anticipate consequences in other situations Behavior modeling Observing and modeling behavior of others Self-regulation People engage in intentional, purposive action they develop goals, achievement standards, action plans People form expectancies (anticipate consequences) from others -- not just from their own experiences People reinforce their own behavior (self-reinforcement) 4-54 Goal Setting The process of motivating employees and

clarifying their role perceptions by establishing performance objectives 4-55 Effective Goal Setting Characteristics S M A R T E R Specific What, how, where, when, and with whom the task needs to be accomplished Measurable how much, how well, at what cost Achievable challenging, yet accepted (E-to-P) Relevant within employees control

Time-framed due date and when assessed Exciting employee commitment, not just compliance Reviewed feedback and recognition on goal progress and accomplishment 4-56 Balanced Scorecard Organizational-level goal setting and feedback Attempts to include measurable performance goals related to financial, customer, internal, and learning/growth (i.e., human capital) processes

Usually includes several goals within each process 4-57 Characteristics of Effective Feedback 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Specific connected to goal details Relevant Relates to persons behavior Timely to improve link from behavior to outcomes Credible trustworthy source Sufficiently frequent Employees knowledge/experience

Task cycle 4-58 Strengths-Based Coaching Feedback Maximizing the persons potential by focusing on their strengths rather than weaknesses Motivational because: people inherently seek feedback about their strengths, not their flaws persons interests, preferences,

and competencies stabilize over time 4-59 Multisource Feedback Received from a full circle of people around the employee Provides more complete and accurate information Several challenges expensive and time-consuming

ambiguous and conflicting feedback inflated rather than accurate feedback stronger emotional reaction to multiple feedback 4-60 Organizational Justice Distributive justice Perceived fairness in outcomes we receive relative to our contributions and the outcomes and contributions of others Procedural justice Perceived fairness of the procedures used to decide the distribution of resources

4-61 Equity Theory Your Own Outcome/Input Ratio Comparison Others Outcome/Input Ratio Own outcomes Others outcomes Own inputs Compare own ratio with Others ratio

Others inputs Perceptions of equity or inequity 4-62 Elements of Equity Theory Outcome/input ratio inputs -- what employee contributes (e.g., skill) outcomes -- what employee receives (e.g., pay) Comparison other person/people against whom we compare our ratio not easily identifiable Equity evaluation compare outcome/input ratio with the comparison

other 4-63 Correcting Inequity Tension Actions to correct underreward inequity Example Reduce our inputs Less organizational citizenship Increase our outcomes Ask for pay increase Increase others inputs

Ask coworker to work harder Reduce others outputs Ask boss to stop giving preferred treatment to coworker Change our perceptions Start thinking that coworkers perks arent really so valuable Change comparison other Compare self to someone closer to your situation Leave the field Quit job

4-64 Procedural Justice Perceived fairness of procedures used to decide the distribution of resources Higher procedural fairness with: Voice Unbiased decision maker Decision based on all information

Existing policies consistently Decision maker listened to all sides Those who complain are treated respectfully Those who complain are given full explanation 4-65 Week 3 wrap up Questions? Assignments for next week 4-66

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