INTRODUCTION Humans have over 650 muscles which differ

INTRODUCTION Humans have over 650 muscles which differ in size according to the jobs they do. These muscles constitute 40% of our body weight. The special function of muscle tissue is contraction. CONTRACTION: a shortening or tensing of a

part or organ (especially of a muscle or muscle fiber) TYPES OF MUSCLE VOLUNTARY/SKELETAL MUSCLE INVOLUNTARY MUSCLE CARDIAC MUSCLE

VOLUNTARY/SKELETAL MUSCLE Muscle that is under the control of the will and is generally attached to the skeleton Fast acting, Powerful, Eventually will tire FOR EXAMPLE: Biceps and Deltoids INVOLUNTARY MUSCLE Muscle whose activity is not under the control of the will;

it is supplied by the autonomic nervous system -The part of the vertebrate that supplies stimulation via motor nerves to the smooth and cardiac muscles (the involuntary muscles) and to the glands of the body Slow acting We do not have conscious control Weak. FOR EXAMPLE: Muscles of Digestive Tract/Bladder

CARDIAC MUSCLE A type of muscle with unique features only found in the heart. The cardiac muscle is the muscle of the heart and medically is called the myocardium. Own blood supply Does not tire Fast acting

Powerful FUNCTIONING OF A MUSCLE Muscle has only one function and that is to contract. Muscles are attached to bones by tendons so when a muscle contracts it pulls on the bones that it is attached to and the result is movement of that bone. The type of movement is determined by the joint at which the bone occurs.

Because a muscle can only contract it can not move the bone back to its original position, i.e. it can not relax. So muscles usually work in pairs of opposites (Antagonistic pairs). FUNCTIONING OF A MUSCLE (continued) Although muscles are known individually by the particular anatomical name, they are also known collectively by the type of movement that

their contraction creates. E.g. When the biceps contracts it bends the arm and pulls the hand up towards the shoulder. The movement that has occurred is flexion at the elbow. So the biceps is known as a Flexor muscle. The opposite movement is extension and the triceps is known as an Extensor muscle

MUSCLE ATTACHMENT Muscles are attached to bones by tendons. Tendons are fibrous straps that grow out of the bone and into the muscle. They are very strong and elastic, indeed the Achilles tendon is the strongest thing in the body. ORIGIN AND INSERTION

A muscle is attached to at least two bones. These two attachments are different and are known by different names: ORIGIN and INSERTION The origin is the point of attachment for the muscle to the bone that it is anchored to. The point of insertion is the point of attachment for the muscle to the bone that it moves.

EX: The point of origin for the Biceps is the Scapula and the point of insertion is the radius i.e. it does not move the scapula but it does move the radius. DIFFERENT ROLES OF MUSCLE Different muscles perform different functionssometimes at different times

AGONIST (Prime Mover) This is the muscle whose contraction and subsequent pull on the insertion tendon creates the movement EX: the hamstrings when bending the leg to run. ANTAGONIST

This is the muscle that is relatively passive during the movement, but that will become the prime mover when the body part is returned to its original position EX: the quadriceps during the first part of the stride when running. SYNERGIST This is the muscle that helps to stabilize the body

part that is being moved. It is adjacent to the insertion tendon. EX: around the elbow during the bicep curl (Biceps is the agonist, Triceps is antagonist). FIXATOR This is the muscle that provides stability at the point of origin for the working muscle, EX: The muscles of the shoulder and upper back

during the bicep curl. TYPES OF MUSCLE FIBER Muscle Fiber can be either: SLOW TWITCH (Type 1) Endurance Fiber, works well with oxygen, aerobic Ex: Long Distance Runners FAST TWITCH (Type 2)

Power Fiber, Quick Bursts anaerobic Ex. Sprinters, Power Lifters Slow-Twitch Slow-twitch fibres contract slowly and can be used for longer periods of time. Postural muscle of the back are composed of mostly slow-twitch

muscle fibers. Athletes who run long distances need more slow-twitch fibers in their legs. Slow-twitch muscle fibers rely on oxygen as their main energy source. Fast-Twitch Fast-twitch fibers contract quickly and

provide strength and speed, though they also fatigue more quickly. Sprinters require short but intense bursts of energy and therefore need more fasttwitch muscle fibers. Fast-twitch muscle fibers rely on ATP and glycogen as their main energy source. As ATP sources can be rapidly depleted, lactic acid is a by product of the breakdown of

glycogen, fast-twitch fibers can only be active for a short period of time. .

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