Selecting Applicants - Kent State University

Chapter 6 Selecting Applicants 2010 Cengage Learning. Atomic Dog is a trademark used herein under license. All rights reserved. Chapter Outline 6-1 Gaining Competitive Advantage 6-2 HRM Issues and Practices 6-3 The Managers Guide 2010 Cengage Learning. Atomic Dog is a trademark used herein under license. All rights reserved. 6-1a Opening Case: Gaining Competitive

Advantage at Southwest Airlines (SWA) Problem: Selecting the best employees from thousands of applicants. Solution: Implementing targeted selection. How the use of targeted selection enhanced competitive advantage SWA has been quite successful in achieving a competitive advantage, due, in part, to its selection practices. 2010 Cengage Learning. Atomic Dog is a trademark used herein under license. All rights reserved.

6-1b Linking Selection Practices to Competitive Advantage The effectiveness of a firms selection practices can impact an organizations competitive advantage in a number of ways: Improving productivity. Achieving legal compliance. Reducing training costs. 2010 Cengage Learning. Atomic Dog is a trademark used herein under license. All rights reserved. 6-2a Technical Standards for Selection Practices

Validity, the technical term for effectiveness, refers to the appropriateness, meaningfulness, and usefulness of selection inferences. The closer the actual job performances match the expected performances, the greater the validity of the selection process. Manager must have a clear notion of the needed job qualifications, and must use selection methods that reliably and accurately measure these qualifications. 2010 Cengage Learning. Atomic Dog is a trademark used herein under license. All rights reserved. 6-2a Technical Standards for Selection Practices (cont.)

Determining job qualifications Job qualifications refer to the personal qualities an employer seeks when filling a position. Some qualifications, such as technical KSAs and nontechnical skills are job-specific; other qualifications are universal. By basing qualifications on job analysis information, a company ensures that the qualities being assessed are important for the job. Job analyses are also needed for legal reasons.

2010 Cengage Learning. Atomic Dog is a trademark used herein under license. All rights reserved. 6-2a Technical Standards for Selection Practices (cont.) Choosing selection methods The choice of selection methods should reliably and accurately measure the needed qualifications. Reliability is the degree of self-consistency among the scores earned by an individual. Reliable evaluations are consistent across both people and time. 2010 Cengage Learning. Atomic Dog is a trademark used herein under license. All rights reserved.

2010 Cengage Learning. Atomic Dog is a trademark used herein under license. All rights reserved. 6-2a Technical Standards for Selection Practices (cont.) The firms assessments should accurately measure the needed worker requirements. A particularly effective approach or model to follow when making this decision is known as the behavior consistency model. The model specifies that the best predictor of future job behavior is past behavior performed under similar circumstances.

2010 Cengage Learning. Atomic Dog is a trademark used herein under license. All rights reserved. 6-2a Technical Standards for Selection Practices (cont.) To implement the behavior consistency model, employers should follow this process: Thoroughly assess each applicants previous work experience to determine if the candidate has exhibited relevant behaviors in the past. If such behaviors are found, the manager should evaluate the applicants past success on each behavior based on carefully developed rating scales.

If such behaviors are not found, estimate the future likelihood of these behaviors by administering various types of assessments. 2010 Cengage Learning. Atomic Dog is a trademark used herein under license. All rights reserved. 6-2a Technical Standards for Selection Practices (cont.) Assessing and documenting validity Content-oriented strategy: Demonstrate that it followed proper procedures in the development and use of its selection devices. Criterion-related strategy: Provide statistical evidence

showing a relationship between applicant selection scores and subsequent job performance levels. Validity generalization strategy: Demonstrate that other companies have already demonstrated the validity of the selection instruments. 2010 Cengage Learning. Atomic Dog is a trademark used herein under license. All rights reserved. 6-2a Technical Standards for Selection Practices (cont.) Content-oriented strategy Evidence would show that the selection devices were properly designed and were accurate measures of the needed worker requirements. The employer must demonstrate that:

- The selection devices were chosen on the basis of an acceptable job analysis. They measured a representative sample of the KSAs identified. 2010 Cengage Learning. Atomic Dog is a trademark used herein under license. All rights reserved. 6-2a Technical Standards for Selection Practices (cont.) Criterion-related strategy Attempts to demonstrate statistically that someone who does well on a selection instrument is more likely to be a good job performer than someone who does

poorly. To gather criterion-related evidence, two pieces of information are required : a predictor score and a criterion score. 2010 Cengage Learning. Atomic Dog is a trademark used herein under license. All rights reserved. 6-2a Technical Standards for Selection Practices (cont.) Criterion-related strategy Predictor scores: Represent how well the individual fared during the selection process. Criterion scores: Represent the job performance level

achieved by the individual, usually based on supervisor evaluations. Validity coefficient: An index of criterion-related validity reflecting the correlation between selection and criterion scores; should be at least r = .3. 2010 Cengage Learning. Atomic Dog is a trademark used herein under license. All rights reserved. 6-2a Technical Standards for Selection Practices (cont.) A criterion-related validation study may be conducted in one of two ways: Predictive validation study: Information is gathered on actual job applicants. Concurrent validation study:

- Information is gathered on current employees. More commonly used as they can be conducted more quickly. 2010 Cengage Learning. Atomic Dog is a trademark used herein under license. All rights reserved. 6-2a Technical Standards for Selection Practices (cont.) Validity generalization strategy Established by demonstrating that a selection device has been consistently found to be valid in many other similar settings. Organization must present the following data:

- Studies summarizing a selection measures validity for similar jobs in other settings. Similarity between jobs for which the validity evidence is reported and the job in the new employment setting. Similarity between the selection measures in the other studies composing the validity evidence, and those measures to be used in the new employment setting. 2010 Cengage Learning. Atomic Dog is a trademark used herein under license. All rights reserved. 6-2b Legal Constraints on Employee Selection Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) guidelines on employment discrimination

The Uniform Guidelines National Origin Discrimination Guidelines Sexual Harassment Guidelines Pregnancy Discrimination Guidelines Age Discrimination Guidelines Religious Discrimination Guidelines Disability Discrimination Guidelines 2010 Cengage Learning. Atomic Dog is a trademark used herein under license. All rights reserved. 6-2b Legal Constraints on Employee Selection (cont.) The Uniform Guidelines

Issued in 1978. Apply to nearly all organizations employing 15 or more employees. Designed to assist organizations in understanding the compliance requirements imposed by Title VII of the Civil Rights Act, primarily with regard to disparate impact claims. 2010 Cengage Learning. Atomic Dog is a trademark used herein under license. All rights reserved. 6-2b Legal Constraints on Employee Selection (cont.) National Origin Discrimination Guidelines

Individuals rejected for employment have just cause for legal redress if their rejection was based on any of the following factors: - Place of origin Ancestors place of origin Marriage to a person of a foreign origin Membership in an association seeking to promote the interests of a national origin group 2010 Cengage Learning. Atomic Dog is a trademark used herein under license. All rights reserved. 6-2b Legal Constraints on Employee Selection (cont.) Sexual Harassment Guidelines: The employer is liable for unlawful sex discrimination if:

An employment opportunity is granted because of a candidates submission to an employers request for sexual favors. An employment opportunity is withheld because of the candidates refusal to grant such favors. 2010 Cengage Learning. Atomic Dog is a trademark used herein under license. All rights reserved. 6-2b Legal Constraints on Employee Selection (cont.) Pregnancy Discrimination Guidelines A female applicant who is temporarily unable to perform some job function due to her pregnancyrelated condition must be treated in the same manner

as any other applicant with a temporary disability. The preferences of coworkers, clients, or customers would not serve as a legitimate, nondiscriminatory reason for rejecting such a candidate. 2010 Cengage Learning. Atomic Dog is a trademark used herein under license. All rights reserved. 6-2b Legal Constraints on Employee Selection (cont.) Age Discrimination Guidelines Prohibits disparate treatment directed towards applicants aged 40 and above. If charged with age-based disparate treatment, a firm must demonstrate that: -

The hiring decision was not based on age, but on some reasonable factor other than age, such as lack of skill. Age is a BFOQ (bona fide occupational qualification) for the position. It is a business necessity. 2010 Cengage Learning. Atomic Dog is a trademark used herein under license. All rights reserved. 6-2b Legal Constraints on Employee Selection (cont.) Religious Discrimination Guidelines Requires employers to accommodate a reasonable

request for religious accommodation, as long as the accommodation does not pose an undue hardship on their business operations. When judging a claim of undue hardship, the courts apply a standard called the de minimis principle. The principle states that to be declared an undue hardship, the cost of accommodation must be more than minimal. 2010 Cengage Learning. Atomic Dog is a trademark used herein under license. All rights reserved. 6-2b Legal Constraints on Employee Selection (cont.) Disability Discrimination Guidelines The act defines disability as a physical or mental

impairment that substantially limits one or more of an individuals major life activities. A summary of the ADA guidelines give a detailed account of what an organization may (or must) do and what it may not do when it considers employing a disabled applicant. 2010 Cengage Learning. Atomic Dog is a trademark used herein under license. All rights reserved. 6-2b Legal Constraints on Employee Selection (cont.) Constitutional constraints on selection Fourth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution Pertains to an individuals privacy rights.

Is the basis for workplace-related lawsuits dealing with the use of certain physiological screening devices. Imposes constraints on the type of information that employers may lawfully collect about an applicant. 2010 Cengage Learning. Atomic Dog is a trademark used herein under license. All rights reserved. 6-2b Legal Constraints on Employee Selection (cont.) Constitutional constraints on selection Fifth and Fourteenth Amendments to the U.S. Constitution Provides citizens with equal protection under the law. Fifth Amendment applies to federal employees, while the Fourteenth Amendment applies to state employees.

2010 Cengage Learning. Atomic Dog is a trademark used herein under license. All rights reserved. 6-2b Legal Constraints on Employee Selection (cont.) Tort law constraints on selection Refers to civil laws designed to discourage individuals from subjecting others to unreasonable risks and to compensate those who have been injured by unreasonably risky behavior. Two areas that bear the most influence on employee selection are negligent hiring and defamation. Defamation -

The unprivileged publication of a false oral or written statement that harms the reputation of another person. Claims often arise when giving reference information. 2010 Cengage Learning. Atomic Dog is a trademark used herein under license. All rights reserved. 6-2b Legal Constraints on Employee Selection (cont.) Negligent hiring Refers to situations in which employers hire an applicant who is somehow unfit for the job, and because of this unfitness, commits an act that causes harm to another. An individual would be considered unfit in a negligent

hiring case if he or she: - Lacked the necessary training and experience. Had a physical or mental infirmity. Was frequently intoxicated. Experienced constant forgetfulness. Liked to engage in horseplay or was reckless or malicious. 2010 Cengage Learning. Atomic Dog is a trademark used herein under license. All rights reserved. 6-2c Selection Methods Application blanks Biodata inventories

Background investigations Reference checks Employment interviews Employment tests Assessment centers

Screening for dysfunctional behavior 2010 Cengage Learning. Atomic Dog is a trademark used herein under license. All rights reserved. 6-2c Selection Methods (cont.) Application blanks Purpose To determine whether candidates meet the minimum qualifications for the job. Help employers judge the presence (or absence) of certain job-related attributes. Used to red flag any potential problem areas concerning the applicant.

2010 Cengage Learning. Atomic Dog is a trademark used herein under license. All rights reserved. Figure 6-2 Examples of Potentially Unlawful Questions 2010 Cengage Learning. Atomic Dog is a trademark used herein under license. All rights reserved. 6-2c Selection Methods (cont.) Biodata inventories Responses are objectively evaluated. The two types of biodata inventories are weighted

application blanks and biographical information blanks. Weighted application blank: A biodata inventory containing the same questions as an application blank. Biographical information blank: A biodata inventory consisting of a set of questions designed to cover a broad array of background information. 2010 Cengage Learning. Atomic Dog is a trademark used herein under license. All rights reserved. 6-2c Selection Methods (cont.) Biodata inventories (cont.) Used as a prescreening device to predict tenure. Excellent predictors of job success. Few companies use this method.

Have some legal concerns that may be justified. 2010 Cengage Learning. Atomic Dog is a trademark used herein under license. All rights reserved. 6-2c Selection Methods (cont.) Background investigations Serve two purposes Screen applicants for: - Positions of trust in occupations such as law enforcement, private security, and nuclear power. Special duty of care positions in order to satisfy requirements imposed by negligent hiring law. Employers must avoid violating the legal rights of

applicants; the primary law being Fair Credit Reporting Act. - This law is designed to protect applicants rights in the event of a background investigation conducted by an investigative agency. 2010 Cengage Learning. Atomic Dog is a trademark used herein under license. All rights reserved. 6-2c Selection Methods (cont.) Reference checks Involve collecting information from applicants previous

employers. Provide another potentially useful means of assessment. Serve two important purposes: - - Verify information provided by applicants to ensure that they have not fabricated their qualifications or work history. Provide additional information about applicants, which may be predictive of job performance. 2010 Cengage Learning. Atomic Dog is a trademark used herein under license. All rights reserved. 2010 Cengage Learning. Atomic Dog is a trademark used herein under license. All rights reserved. 6-2c Selection Methods (cont.)

Employment Interviews Provide an opportunity for applicants to describe their previous work experience, educational history, career interests, and likes and dislikes among others. Four types of valuable information sought during an interview: - Technical knowledge Self-evaluative information Situational information Behavior description information Raise the same legal concerns as application blanks.

2010 Cengage Learning. Atomic Dog is a trademark used herein under license. All rights reserved. 6-2c Selection Methods (cont.) Employment tests Mental ability tests Designed to measure intelligence or aptitude. Used primarily for assessing entry-level applicants for jobs that do not require specific job-related skills. Determine whether applicants have the capacity to learn job skills successfully. Often have a disparate impact on certain protected groups; some employers are thus reluctant to use mental ability tests.

2010 Cengage Learning. Atomic Dog is a trademark used herein under license. All rights reserved. Figure 6-3 The Big Five Personality Types 2010 Cengage Learning. Atomic Dog is a trademark used herein under license. All rights reserved. 6-2c Selection Methods (cont.) Employment tests Personality tests Provide a more objective way to gauge personality. The validity of a personality test is situation specific; a well-designed test can be a valid predictor of job performance for some jobs, but not for others.

There are few legal problem associated with their use. 2010 Cengage Learning. Atomic Dog is a trademark used herein under license. All rights reserved. 6-2c Selection Methods (cont.) Employment tests Work sample tests Require applicants to perform some of the actual (or simulated) duties of the vacant position. Used to assess manual skills, clerical skills, and managerial skills.

The tests are quite valid, if properly constructed and implemented, as they provide direct measures of job performance. Are quite expensive. Could have possible safety problems. 2010 Cengage Learning. Atomic Dog is a trademark used herein under license. All rights reserved. 6-2c Selection Methods (cont.) Developing work sample tests Conduct a job analysis to identify the important tasks

of the position. Choose a representative sample of tasks to be included on the test. Develop a scoring procedure for assessing how effectively an applicant performs each task. Administer the test to applicants under standardized conditions. 2010 Cengage Learning. Atomic Dog is a trademark used herein under license. All rights reserved. 6-2c Selection Methods (cont.) Assessment centers

A selection technique that consists of work samples and other assessment techniques. Is primarily used to select managers. Work sample tests are often administered as part of an assessment center. The most commonly used work sample tests are: - Leaderless group discussion Management games In-basket Have been found to be quite valid when appropriately developed and used. 2010 Cengage Learning. Atomic Dog is a trademark used herein under license. All rights reserved. 6-2c Selection Methods (cont.)

Screening for dysfunctional behavior Employers do not want to hire applicants with dysfunctional tendencies such as drug addiction and dishonesty. Organizations can minimize drug abuse costs by administering drug tests to applicants. Applicant honesty is assessed to reduce instances of employee theft at the workplace. The two primary methods for predicting dishonesty are polygraph tests and paper-and-pencil honesty tests. 2010 Cengage Learning. Atomic Dog is a trademark used herein under license. All rights reserved.

6-2c Selection Methods (cont.) Screening for dysfunctional behavior Polygraph tests: Designed to ascertain truthfulness of the information given by the examinee. - The Employee Polygraph Protection Act (EPPA) of 1988 bans most private-sector employers from using polygraph tests in the selection of candidates. Paper-and-pencil honesty tests: Written tests that employers use to estimate an applicants propensity to steal from an employer. -

Paper-and-pencil honesty tests may either be overt or personality-based measures. 2010 Cengage Learning. Atomic Dog is a trademark used herein under license. All rights reserved. 6-3a Employee Selection and the Managers Job Determining needed competencies Assessing job candidates Providing input into selection decisions

Making job offers - Two important principles: The offer should not be perceived as a gift; it must be sold to the candidate. The offer should not remain open awaiting response for too long, which would preclude making an offer to another candidate. 2010 Cengage Learning. Atomic Dog is a trademark used herein under license. All rights reserved. 6-3a Employee Selection and the Managers Job (cont.) The Managers role in validation

The actions taken by managers in the selection process affect the validity of the process. When the validity of the selection process is challenged, as it may be in a discrimination suit, courts will scrutinize the managers actions. The Managers role in complaint investigations 2010 Cengage Learning. Atomic Dog is a trademark used herein under license. All rights reserved. 6-3b How the HRM Department Can Help HR professionals play two primary roles:

Providing technical support. Helping managers conform to legal and technical standards throughout the selection process. 2010 Cengage Learning. Atomic Dog is a trademark used herein under license. All rights reserved. 6-3b How the HRM Department Can Help (cont.) Technical functions Conduct job analyses and write job descriptions. Conduct initial screening of applicants. Set minimum qualifications for jobs.

Conduct (or commission) background or reference checks. Determine which selection method Approve selection decisions made to use. by line managers. Develop application blanks. Monitor the firms hiring practices for EEO compliance and validity. Select, develop, and administer employment tests. 2010 Cengage Learning. Atomic Dog is a trademark used herein under license. All rights reserved. 6-3b How the HRM Department Can Help (cont.) HR professionals assist managers in various ways:

Answering EEO-related questions and providing legal/ EEO training. Offering interviewer training programs. Helping choose a selection device that would be most appropriate for a given situation. Update veteran managers about changing legal requirements. 2010 Cengage Learning. Atomic Dog is a trademark used herein under license. All rights reserved. 6-3c HRM Skill-Building for Managers Avoiding interviewer mistakes

Have a clear idea of the type of person needed to fill the job; review and revise the job description as needed. Correctly interpret the information on the application blank; keep an open mind throughout the process. Prepare a set of job-related questions and ensure that each is covered during the interview. Do not telegraph the right answer prior to asking the question. Withhold information regarding the job and worker requirements until the end of the interview.

2010 Cengage Learning. Atomic Dog is a trademark used herein under license. All rights reserved. 6-3c HRM Skill-Building for Managers (cont.) Avoiding interviewer mistakes Ask questions that make it difficult for applicants to always present themselves favorably. Avoid jumping to conclusions by probing applicants to elaborate and clarify previous responses.

Note any inconsistencies among the responses given by an applicant during the interview. Avoid making snap judgments by preparing rating forms prior to the interview, listing relevant attributes. Evaluate each candidate immediately after the interview; interview notes may be documented to defend against discrimination suits. 2010 Cengage Learning. Atomic Dog is a trademark used herein under license. All rights reserved. 6-3c HRM Skill-Building for Managers (cont.) Conducting a structured interview

Prepare for the interview in a thorough manner. Begin and conduct the interview in a friendly but businesslike manner. Solicit information in a nonjudgmental manner and maintain control of the interview. Give pertinent information about the job and firm; honestly answer the applicants questions. Terminate the interview by expressing appreciation and explaining the selection procedure. 2010 Cengage Learning. Atomic Dog is a trademark used herein under license. All rights reserved. 6-3c HRM Skill-Building for Managers (cont.) Identifying the best candidate when a compensatory model is operating:

Evaluate applicants on each individual attribute needed for the job. Statistically combine the ratings to form a composite scorethe composite being a weighted average, reflecting the relative importance of each attribute. Select the applicant with the highest score. 2010 Cengage Learning. Atomic Dog is a trademark used herein under license. All rights reserved. 6-3c HRM Skill-Building for Managers (cont.) Identifying the best candidate when a noncompensatory model is operating:

A subset of candidates may be eliminated during various stages of the selection process if a candidate possesses a noncompensable deficiency; this approach is called successive hurdles. The use of successive hurdles lowers selection costs. 2010 Cengage Learning. Atomic Dog is a trademark used herein under license. All rights reserved. 6-3c HRM Skill-Building for Managers (cont.) Dealing with EEOC investigations

Should an applicant file a discrimination claim, the EEOC will notify the employer in writing within 10 days. The company should launch its own investigation of the charges by preparing witness statements, preparing for a possible full-scale EEOC investigation, and subsequent litigation. Upon completion of its own investigation, the company must decide whether to fight the charges or to settle. 2010 Cengage Learning. Atomic Dog is a trademark used herein under license. All rights reserved. 6-3c HRM Skill-Building for Managers (cont.) Dealing with EEOC investigations (cont.)

If no settlement is reached, the EEOC requires the employer and the complaining party to attend a nofault conference. If the matter is not resolved during the conference, the EEOC will conduct a full-scale investigation. Ultimately, the EEOC will either issue a cause or no cause decision. If the finding is a no cause the complaining party is issued a right to sue and has 90 days to file a lawsuit. 2010 Cengage Learning. Atomic Dog is a trademark used herein under license. All rights reserved.

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