Présentation PowerPoint

Chap. 6 Interactions between the tropics and midlatitudes Intro : Interactions between the tropics and midlatitudes occurred the most frequently during the winter season 6.1 Cold front or pseudo-cold front 6.2 Winter subtropical cyclone or winter mid-tropospheric cyclone 6.3 Waves in the winter easterlies 6.4 Shear lines 6.5 Cold surge 6.6 Dust storm 6.7 Influence of the extratropics on tropical convection over N.Pacific general content 6.1 Westerly troughs : Key features

Move of the Cold front 30N W. E. Move of the pseudo-cold front Upper westerly trough equator Schematic airflow about a retarded cold front in the tropics. Broken stremalines for upper flow; solid lines for lower levels. Source : daprs Met Office College

Synoptic Features : In winter, the extension of the upper trough, which is a midlatitude feature, into the tropics occurs when the cold front advances equatorwards and then becomes retarded in its southward (northen hemisphere) movement. Then, the cold front is often represented as a pseudo cold-front The upper through, however, continues to dig south and moves ahead of the retarted portion of the front which soon loses its identity as a surface feature 6.1 Westerly troughs : Key features Weather associated : In the southward flow ahead of the cold front, trades winds vanish and convection by diurnal evolution enhances day after day Pre-frontale convergence with moist and warm air ahead of the front (high instability) which may induce heavy rains (100mm) Strenghtening of northeasterlies behind the cold front

with drop of temperature Frequency : 3 to 5 times per month over Carribean, Mascareign, Polynesian islands Tracking the convection : Z, theta on 1.5 PVU since vertical velocity are enhanced ahead of a stratospheric intrusion divergence at 200 hPa and convergence at 925 hPa Further possible scenario : If the upper through extends equatorward far enough to interact with the ITCZ, then marked intensification of convection within the latter occurs. On occasions, this may cause a large band of cloud to move out of the ITCZ, caught up in the SW lies ahead of the upper trough and extend to mid-latitude.

Sommaire chap.6 6.1 Westerly troughs : Carribean Islands Source : images du satellite GOES E. Mto-France Source : Analyse Arpge; Mto-France Sommaire chap.6 6.1 Westerly troughs : Reunion Islands : example1 of 11/04/2001 image satellite du 11/04/2001. Source : Mto-France

A A Satellite image of 11/04/2001 Cold front affecting Mascareign Islands and taking place in a trough beetween two ridges of the Mascareign high This cold front has generated heavy rains at Reunion , from 60 mm to 300 mm over Volcano! Sommaire chap.6 6.1 Westerly troughs : Reunion Islands : example2 of 09/04/2003 Z sur la surface 2 PVU + image vapeur deau du 09/04/03. Source : Mto-France Z on the 2 PVU + Water Vapor image of 09/04/03

intrusion of stratospheric air : with subsidence behind and ascending motion enhanced ahead Sommaire chap.6 6.1 Westerly troughs : Reunion Islands : example2 of 09/04/2003 vitesse de vent seuille 40 kt sur la 2 PVU (CEP) image vapeur deau du 09/04/03 du satellite INSAT. Source : Mto-France. Speed Wind > 40 kt on the 2 PVU (CEP) Water Vapor image of 09/04/03 Convection enhanced at the left entry (we are in the Southern hemisphere ) of the STJ Sommaire chap.6 6.1 Westerly troughs : French Polynesian

Les dpressions d origine polaire le 31 mai 2000. Marquises Source : Mto-France A Tahiti A Rikitea Tubuai D 140W Cold front generally not active over Polynesian Islands, except for

Gambier and Austral Islands, since cold front go generally polewards, eastwards of 140W Over Tahiti, and nortwards regions, the weather associated is only a line of Stratocumulus, but ahead of the cold front a convergence line very unstable may develop Sommaire chap.6 6.1 Westerly troughs : New Caledonia Cold front occur in winter , from mid-may to mid-september Cold front may induce westerlies up to 60 km/h and heavy rains

(100 mm/day) Source : Mto-France Sommaire chap.6 Chap. 6 Interactions between the tropics and midlatitudes Intro : Interactions between the tropics and midlatitudes occurred the most frequently during the winter season 6.1 Cold front or pseudo-cold front 6.2 Winter subtropical cyclone or winter mid-tropospheric cyclone 6.3 Waves in the winter easterlies 6.4 Shear lines 6.5 Cold surge

6.6 Dust storm 6.7 Influence of the extratropics on tropical convection over N.Pacific general content 6.2 Winter subtropical cyclone or winter mid-tropospheric cyclone Initiation : In winter, as a rule, cold front move northeastward out of tropics region before any major deepening takes place. However, if the upper through in the westerlies, located behind the cold front, has a considerable meridional extension, then a major deepening can take place in low latitudes. If high pressure build across the trough to its north, a cut-off is created and the vigorous system has a slow moving. It is commonly referred to as a subtropical

cyclone. To sum-up, the winter subtropical cyclone originate from cut-off lows in the upper-level subtropical westerlies but the heart of the system is in mid-troposphere (400-600 hPa) 6.2 Winter subtropical cyclone or winter mid-tropospheric cyclone Divergence reprsente par +, convergence par Source : daprs Ramage, 1971 Main features : Closed circulation between 700 and 300 hPa (mid-tropospheric cyclone). Light signature at surface and 200 hPa at its early stage. Cold core (but subtropical cyclone is not marked as a front cold)

Occurrence (northern hemisphere) : from november to january Location : in the Atlantic generally found btw 15N/35N and 30W/60W (SW of the Azores) but may exist everywhere, only 1 or 2 per year more common in Pacific btw 15 and 35N and 175E and 140W (next to Hawaii), called as Kona cyclone 6.2 Winter subtropical cyclone or winter mid-tropospheric cyclone - = convergence + = divergence Main features : Source : daprs Ramage, 1971 Maximum of wind, between 400 and 600 hPa, on the eastern side (about 500 km from the center) of the cyclone

Max. of convergence = 600 to 500 hPa Divergence at 300 hPa and at 800 hPa (trade winds inversion not vanished !) Maximum of rain on the eastern side (about 500 km from the center) of the cyclone. Sky clear at the center. In surface, light wind and slack pressure gradient but it may exist a great variability with the time 6.2 Winter subtropical cyclone or winter mid-tropospheric cyclone tropopause Source : daprs Ramage, 1971 Life span = several days to several weeks ! High PV (i.e. dry air) and low tropopause at center of cyclone : A great variability of structure with the time : Usually, subtropical cylone remain cold core, but sometimes, the release of latent heat is filling litlle by little the cold pool

and subtropical cyclone become a warm core and it can develop an eye, as a hurricane. Should the occasion arise, the MSPL fall and the surface wind can become violent !! Sommaire chap.6 6.2 Winter subtropical cyclone Carribean Islands :example of 23/05/04 Source : Mto-France Z + VV>0 on 1.5 PVU Wind > 40 kt on 1.5 PVU Water vapor 23/05/04 at 00UTC 6.2 Winter subtropical cyclone Carribean Islands :example of 23/05/04 Source : Mto-France

Cutoff Cutoff 23/05/04 at 18UTC VV>0 at Righ entry of STJ and upstream the cutoff Z + VV>0 on 1.5 PVU Wind > 40 kt on 1.5 PVU Water vapor 6.2 Winter subtropical cyclone Carribean Islands :example of 23/05/04 Source : Mto-France Cutoff Cutoff

Z + VV>0 on 1.5 PVU Wind > 40 kt 23/05/04 at 18UTC VV >0 Right entry of STJ and upstream the cutoff 6.2 Winter subtropical cyclone Carribean Islands :example of 23/05/04 Source : Mto-France 24/05/04 at 00 UTC 30N 25N 1008 hPa

20N Location of the convection in subtropical cyclone: right entry of STJ upstream the cutoff Pmer + IR image Sommaire chap.6 Chap. 6 Interactions between the tropics and midlatitudes Intro : Interactions between the tropics and midlatitudes occurred the most frequently during the winter season 6.1 Cold front or pseudo-cold front 6.2 Winter subtropical cyclone or

winter mid-tropospheric cyclone 6.3 Waves in the winter easterlies 6.4 Shear lines 6.5 Cold surge 6.6 Dust storm 6.7 Influence of the extratropics on tropical convection over N.Pacific general content 6.3 Waves in the winter easterlies North Pole 30N Upper westerly trough W.

E. trough in easterlies equator equator Schematic airflow about a retarded cold front in the tropics. Broken stremalines for upper flow; solid lines for lower levels Source : Daprs Met Office College Occasionally a trough in the upper westerlies forms and induces a surface trough in the trade wind easterlies, which moves eastward against the surface flow The trough of the easterly waves induce relative vorticity and so it may enhance convection 6.3 Waves in the winter easterlies : illustration in Guyane

D Westerlies A trough A Trough in easterlies Source : Mto-France 6.3 Waves in the winter easterlies : illustration in Guyane A

D Westerlies trough A Trough in easterlies Source : Mto-France Heavy rains : 200 to 250 mm in 12h. on Guyana coast !!! Sommaire chap.6 Chap. 6 Interactions between the tropics and midlatitudes Intro : Interactions between the tropics and midlatitudes occurred the most frequently during the winter season

6.1 Cold front or pseudo-cold front 6.2 Winter subtropical cyclone or winter mid-tropospheric cyclone 6.3 Waves in the winter easterlies 6.4 Shear lines 6.5 Cold surge 6.6 Dust storm 6.7 Influence of the extratropics on tropical convection over N.Pacific general content 6.4 Shear lines : the origins 25N 20N Source : Atkinson, 71 ; daprs Palmer et al.,55

Origins of the shear line : When a cold front move into the tropics, the cold air behind it is much modified by passage over the warm water. In addition, warming by sudsidence takes place in the cold air aloft and so the front ceases to exist as a density discontinuity : at about 20 of latitude, surface air temperature and dew point difference across the front are small or zero. 6.4 Shear lines : the origins a b c d

Source : daprs Met Office College Origins of the shear line (following ): Conditions favouring the transformation of a cold front into a shear line rather than for simple frontolysis to take place, occur when the cold front is followed by an intensifying high which moves or builds equatorwards behind the front as represented at above figure 6.4 Shear lines : definition 25N 20N Source : Atkinson, 71 ; daprs Palmer et al.,55 Definition :

However, instead of decaying as a synoptic feature, the front may retain its identity weather wise, by virtue of cyclonic shear induced by the continuance os strong winds in what was the cold air. A shear line is defined as a line or narrow zone where there is an abrupt vector change in horizontal wind component parallel to the line. In other words, shear lines are defined as a line of maximal horizontal shear. shear 6.4 Shear lines : main features Main features : Lifespan : may persist several days, sometimes even longer Period and location : all tropical regions in winter months move : generally, slowly equatorward and penetrating deep into the tropics. Occasionally, the equatorwards portion may merge with the ITCZ and if the ITCZ is in the other hemisphere, the shear line may even cross the equator.

Weather associated : narrow band of convective clouds of varying development. Cloud tops are usually not excessively high (10000 to 15000 ft) although isolated cumulonimbus may exist. The weather starts to deteriorates in the lights winds just ahead the shear line, while along its axis there may be low cloud and poor visibility associated with the showers 6.4 Shear lines : tracking Streamline in low tropo (unbroken line) ; isotach in kt (dashed line) Source : Atkinson, 1971, daprs Palmer et al., 1955 Tracking through streamline, speed wind, vorticity in low troposphere or/and in surface satelitte cloud imagery makes identification and tracking easy Foreraster be careful ! The activity can wax and wane and so there should be no hurry to drop a shear line from the analysis on

the strenght of one image without strong supporting evidence that the high is weakening or mowing away. Sommaire chap.6 Chap. 6 Interactions between the tropics and midlatitudes Intro : Interactions between the tropics and midlatitudes occurred the most frequently during the winter season 6.1 Cold front or pseudo-cold front 6.2 Winter subtropical cyclone or winter mid-tropospheric cyclone 6.3 Waves in the winter easterlies 6.4 Shear lines 6.5 Cold surge 6.6 Dust storm 6.7 Influence of the extratropics on

tropical convection over N.Pacific general content 6.5 Cold surges : Definition Schematic diagram of a left) synoptic gravity wave right) cold front. Source : Li et Ding, 1989 and from Monsoons over China, chap.2, p.165. Definition : During winter seasons, disturbances of midlatitude origin may penetrate deep into the tropics. Characteristics of cold surges is the build-up of a cold air reservoir in the midlatitudes, the establishement of a steep meridional pressure gradient in low troposphere, and a subsequent abrupt cold-air outbreak (southward of 40N over East Asia). 6.5 Cold surges : The winter Asian cold surge

A D A D Schematic diagram of a left) synoptic gravity wave right) cold front. Source : Li et Ding, 1989 and from Monsoons over China, chap.2, p.165. Stage 1 : Initiation of a cold surge over the East Asia Simultaneous cyclogenesis on the Eastern Sea China (called extratropical cyclone) and anticyclogenesis over Siberia and North China. Following an increase of pressure force and the cold airstream in low troposphere burst out of the anticyclone initiating a cold surge

In addition, it must be outlined thr role played by the Himalaya which provide a suitable setting for the generation of a vast pool of cold air and its outpout eastward of 90E. 6.5 Cold surges : The winter Asian cold surge Schematic diagram of a left) synoptic gravity wave right) cold front. Source : Li et Ding, 1989 and from Monsoons over China, chap.2, p.165. Stage 2 : Southward propagation of the cold surge divided itself into 2 distinct phases : 1) the fisrt phase (left figure) is a southward propagation of a synoptic gravity wave coupled with an increase of pressure, with a speed velocity of 40 m/s. This is not associated with a change in the synoptic weather. 2) the second phase (right figure) is caracterised by a drop of the dew point which is in phase with the passage of the surface cold front (speed velocity of about 10 m/s). Heaviest rainfall

over Malaysia-Indonesia area. 6.5 Cold surges : The winter Asian cold surge Streamline (solid line) and isotherm (dashed line) at 900 hPa on the a) 10 dec. b) 11 dec. C) 12dec. Source : Johnson et Zimmerman, 1986 The increase of northeasterlies may be associated with both phases (gravity wave and cold front ) with about : 20/30 kt over the North China Sea 30/40 kt over the South China Sea The maximum of wind speed is observed at 900/950 hPa, just above the boundary layer Sommaire chap.6

Chap. 6 Interactions between the tropics and midlatitudes Intro : Interactions between the tropics and midlatitudes occurred the most frequently during the winter season 6.1 Cold front or pseudo-cold front 6.2 Winter subtropical cyclone or winter mid-tropospheric cyclone 6.3 Waves in the winter easterlies 6.4 Shear lines 6.5 Cold surge 6.6 Dust storm 6.7 Influence of the extratropics on tropical convection over N.Pacific general content

6.6 Dust storm: in sudan the 27/12/2004 Egypt The airborne dust has a cooling effect on the observed temperature (30c cooler than surrounding desert ) Sudan Nile River Source : images from MODIS (spectroradiometer of 1 km per pixel) left image : natural color right image : temperature

6.6 Dust storm Definition : Strong and sustained winds, capable of raising large amounts of dry opaque particles, causing a serious reduction in visibility (< 1000 m) in Sudan Area (Sudan and Lybia), they are called Haboobs in Middle-East area (Iraq, Saudi Arabia), they are called Shamal 6.6 Dust storm 3 kinds of synoptic situations in Sudan Area : 1) instability type associated with thunderstorm activity, for example ahead a squall line. between May and August short-lived and localized, with a width of 1080km 2) pressure gradient type related with to the steepening of the large-scale meridional pressure gradient

between May and August during the advancing summer monsoon or early monsoon period. widespread and blow for long periods 3) pressure gradient type, associated with cold front and strong southward pressure gradient between February and May with the passage of Mediterranean depression widespread and blow for long periods (24-36 h) and 2-3 times a month Statistics over Central Sudan : 20 dust storms per year, more than 70% of which are of types 1) and 2) between May and August 6.6 Dust storm: over the Red Sea the 30/06/2003 Thick plumes of tan-colored dust are blowing across the Red-sea

This dust storm is related to strong postfrontal north-westerly winds and has persisted 24-36 h The dust storms also severely affect the Darfur region in Sudan and MSG, with its capacity to observe dust storm in the whole area at a frequency of 15 mn, plays an essential role in helping United nations to coordinate their aid. Source : images from MODIS :natural color Chap. 6 Interactions between the tropics and midlatitudes Intro : Interactions between the tropics and midlatitudes occurred the most frequently during the winter season

6.1 Cold front or pseudo-cold front 6.2 Winter subtropical cyclone or winter mid-tropospheric cyclone 6.3 Waves in the winter easterlies 6.4 Shear lines 6.5 Cold surge 6.6 Dust storm of the Sudan 6.7 Influence of the extratropics on tropical convection over N.Pacific general content 6.7 Influence of the extratropics on tropical convection (over North Pacific in winter) 30N Schematic showing the sequence of events describing tropicalextratropical interaction processes over the Pacific Ocean as

simulated by an AGCM . Source : Slingo, 98. Cold surge in low troposphere at 110E initiated by the increasing the Siberian high associated with the passage of deepening d-latitude weather system This cold surge enhances convection over the maritime continent ntensifying the local Hadley circulation which in turns interacts with the extratropics by accelerating he Subtropical Westerly Jet over Eastern Asia Sommaire chap.6 6.7 Influence of the extratropics on tropical convection (over North Pacific in winter) Source : Slingo, 98.

30N Reminder Upper easterlies generally observed between 15N/15S vanish Rossby wave propagation On the contrary, Upper westerlies observed at 30 of latitude and over Equatorial East Pacific are considered as a Rossby wave duct or waveguide 4) The subsequent eastwards extension of the Subtropical Westerly Jet considered as a Rossby canal duct lead to an amplification of a Rossby wavetrain 5) The westerly canal duct observed over Equatorial East Pacific allow the intrusion of an upper tropospheric through in deep tropics over the East Pacific some 3-4 days later resulting in a flaring of convection Sommaire chap.6 6.7 Influence of the extratropics on tropical convection (over North Pacific in winter)

Source : Slingo, 98. 30N Schematic showing the sequence of events describing tropicalextratropical interaction processes over the Pacific Ocean as simulated by an AGCM (Slingo, 98) 6) The final link in the chain is the excitation of equatorial easterly waves by the enhanced convection in the East Pacific. These easterly waves, propagating across the Pacific with a speed phase of 7m/s, may contribute to convective activity in the West Pacific and can, if the phasing is correct, subsequently interact with later cold surge event. Meehl et al. (96) describe such an interaction btw easterly wave and cold surge can contribute to extreme weather event in that region, Sommaire chap.6

References (1) -Atkinson, G. D. 1971 : Forecaster guide to tropical meteorology. Rapport technique 240,U.S. Air Weather Service. - Chang, C. P. , Millard, J. E.,Chen, G.T. J., 1983 :Gravitationnal character of cold surges during winter MONEX. Mon. Wea. Rev., Vol.111, p.293-307 - Ding Yihui, 1994 : Monsoons over China. Kluwer Academic Publishers, 419 p. - Johnson, R. H. and J. R. Zimmerman, 1986 : Modification of the boundary layer over the South China Sea during a winter MONEX cold surge event. Mon. Wea. Rev., Vol.114, p.2004-2005 - Lau, K.-M., and H. Lim, 1984 : On the dynamics of equatorial forcing of climate teleconnections. J. of the Atm. Sci., Vol.41, p.161-176. - Li, C. and Ding, Y. H., 1989 :A diagnostic study of an explosively deepening oceanic cyclone over the northwest Pacific Ocean. Acta Meteorological Sinica, Vol.47, p.180-190 - Malardel S. , 2005 : Fondamentaux de Mtorologie : lcole du

temps. Cpadues Editions, 708 p. - Matthews, A. J. and G. N. Kiladis, 2000 : A model of Rossby waves linked to submonthly convection over the Eastern Tropical Pacific. J. of the Atm. Sci., Vol.57, p. 3785-3798 -Meteorological Office College, FitzRoy Road, Exeter, Devon Courses Note : Introduction to tropical Meteorology - Palmer, C. E., C.W. Wise, L. J. Stempson et G. H. Duncan, 1955 : The practical aspect of tropical meteorology. AWS Manual, Vol.1, p. 105-148 References (2) - Ramage, C. S., 1971 : Monsoon Meteorology. Academic Press, New York and London, 296 p. - Ropelewski C. F. et Halpert M. S., 1987 : Global and Regional scale prcipitations and temperature patterns associated with El Nino/Southern Oscillation. Mon. Wea. Rev., Vol. 115, p. 1606-1626 - Ropelewski C. F. et Halpert M. S., 1989 : Prcipitations patterns

associated with the high index of the Southern Oscillation. J. Clim, Vol.2, p.268-284 - Slingo, J. M., 1998 : Extratropical forcing of tropical convection in a northern winter simulation with the UGAMP GCM. Quarterly Journal of the Royal Met. Soc., Vol.124, p.27-51

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