Overview of the Internet of Things (IoTs) Fall 2013 Qian Zhang FYTGS, HKUST Ice-breaking Course Info Instructor: Qian Zhang www.cse.ust.hk/~qianzh Course web site http://www.cse.ust.hk/~qianzh/FYTGS5100/fall2013/ind
ex.html contains all notes, announcements, etc. Check it regularly! Lecture schedule Wednesday 18:30-21:20 Rm 2406 Course Info The reading materials online for paper reading and student presentation Check recent research papers from high quality conferences and transactions Experience networking research through team projects (12 students) Understand what is good research
Hands-on experience in IoT related research Appreciate team work / collaborations Course Info Grading scheme Homework Project Presentation Final Exam
20 points 25 points 20 points 35 points Paper presentation Everyone reviews and presents 1 paper Email me ids of 3 papers that youd like to present by Sept. 28 Submit a review for one paper of your choice before you present the paper (1-2 pages) Course Schedule
Introduction of the Internet of Things (IoT) (1 week) RFID: technology and applications (1 weeks) Wireless and mobile communications (3.5 weeks) Sensors and wireless sensor networks (3.5 weeks) Localization technologies (1 week) Project preparation (1 week) Student presentation (2 weeks) Outline 1 Whats Internet of Things (IoT) 2
State of the Art of IoT 3 Challenges and Limitation of IoT 4 Future of IoT Starting from the Internet Internet appears everywhere in the world
but it is still a connection between people and people What is the Internet of Things? Internet connects all people, so it is called the Internet of People IoT connects all things, so it is called the Internet of Things Whats the Internet of Things Definition (1) The Internet of Things, also called The Internet of Objects, refers to a wireless network between objects, usually the network will be wireless and self-configuring, such as household appliances.
------Wikipedia (2) By embedding short-range mobile transceivers into a wide array of additional gadgets and everyday items, enabling new forms of communication between people and things, and between things themselves. ------WSIS 2005 Whats the Internet of Things Definition (3) The term "Internet of Things" has come to describe a number of technologies and research disciplines that enable the Internet to reach out into the real world of physical objects. ------IoT 2008
(4) Things having identities and virtual personalities operating in smart spaces using intelligent interfaces to connect and communicate within social, environmental, and user contexts. -------IoT in 2020 Whats the Internet of Things History 1997, The Internet of Things is the seventh in the series of ITU Internet Reports originally launched in 1997 under the title Challenges to the Network. 1999, Auto-ID Center founded in MIT 2003, EPC Global founded in MIT 2005, Four important technologies of the internet of things was
proposed in WSIS conference. 2008, First international conference of internet of things: The IOT 2008 was held at Zurich. Whats the Internet of Things From any time ,any place connectivity for anyone, we will now have connectivity for anything! Whats the Internet of Things Characteristics Ambient Intelligence Event
Driven Flexible Structure Internet of Things Complex Access Technologies Semantic Sharing
Why Internet of Things Dynamic control of industry and daily life Improve the resource utilization ratio Better relationship between human and nature Forming an intellectual entity by integrating human society and physical systems Why Internet of Things (ii) Flexible configuration, P&P Universal transport & internetworking
Accessibility & Usability? Acts as technologies integrator Things Connected: communicated between physical world and information world Epoch of IOT Wen Jiabao: sensing China 2009 2009 Obama: Business Round Table
2009 IBM: Smart Planet 2008 ITU: ITU Internet Reports 2005 MIT: Auto-ID-Center 1999 18
IBM: Smart Planet, Winning in China Premier Wen and Sensing China Premier Wen visited Wuxi in August 7, 2009. He proposed Sensing China. 15-Year Law 1965 Main Frame 1980 PC 1995 Internet 2010 ?
The Application of IoT(1) Regional Office House Transportation Vehicle Biosensor taken by people Network Equipment in public place
Virtual Environment The Application of IoT(2) Scenario: shopping (2) When shopping in the market, the goods will introduce themselves. (1) When entering the doors, scanners will identify the tags on her clothing. (4) When paying for the goods, the microchip of the credit card will communicate with checkout reader. (3) When moving the goods, the reader
will tell the staff to put a new one. The Application of IoT(3) Scenario: Health Care
Various sensors for various conditions Example ICP sensor: Short or long term monitoring of pressure in the brain cavity Implanted in the brain cavity and senses the increase of pressure Sensor and associated electronics encapsulated in safe and biodegradable material
External RF reader powers the unit and receives the signal Stability over 30 days so far The Application of IoT(3) Scenario: Health Care National Health Information Network, Electronic Patient Record Home care: monitoring and control Pulse oximeters, blood glucose monitors, infusion pumps, accelerometers, Operating Room of the Future
Closed loop monitoring and control; multiple treatment stations, plug and play devices; robotic microsurgery System coordination challenge Progress in bioinformatics: gene, protein expression, systems biology, disease dynamics, control mechanisms The Application of IoT(4) Scenario: Intelligent Home Remote monitor for smart house
Remote control for smart appliance The Application of IoT(5) Scenario: Transportation A network of sensors set up throughout a vehicle can interact with its surroundings to provide valuable feedback on local roads, weather and traffic conditions to the car driver, enabling adaptive drive systems to respond accordingly This may involve automatic activation of braking systems or speed control via fuel management systems. Condition and event detection sensors can
activate systems to maintain driver and passenger comfort and safety through the use of airbags and seatbelt pre-tensioning Sensors for fatigue and mood monitoring based on driving conditions, driver behaviour and facial indicators can interact to ensure safe driving by activating warning systems or directly controlling the vehicle The Application of IoT(5) Scenario: Transportation In 2005, 30 90 processors per car Engine control, Break system, Airbag deployment system Windshield wiper, Door locks, Entertainment system Cars are sensors and actuators in V2V networks
Active networked safety alerts Autonomous navigation Future Transportation Systems Incorporate both single person and mass transportation vehicles, air and ground transportations. Achieve efficiency, safety, stability using real-time control and optimization. The Application of IoT(6) Scenario : Monitoring the Environment Life in IoT Era ITU has described the scene of IoT era as follows
The car will generate alarm automatically if the driver has made any mistake during the operation; The bag will send out reminder message if the owner forgot bring something; The cloth will tell the washing-machine about its requirement for the water temperature; Life will be changed completely with the technology of IoT 4 Layers Model for IoT Information Application
Information Processing Information Transmission Information Generation Integrated Application Layer Management Layer Network Construction Layer Sense and Identification Layer More on 4 Layers Model
Integrated Application Information Processing Smart Logistic Smart Grid Data Center Search Engine Smart Decision
Green Building Smart Transport WWAN Network Construction Info. Security Env. Monitor Data Mining WMAN
Internet WPAN WLAN Sensing and Identification GPS Smart Device RFID
Sensor Sensor State of the Art of IoT Enabling Technologies RFID Sensor To identify and track the data of things
To collect and process the data to detect the changes in the physical status of things Smart Tech To enhance the power of the
network by devolving processing capabilities to different part of the network. Nano Tech To make the smaller and smaller things have the ability to
connect and interact. Sensor Technology The ability to detect changes in the physical status of things is essential for recording changes in the environment. Wireless sensor technology play a pivotal role in bridging the gap between the physical and virtual worlds, and enabling things to respond to changes in their physical environment. Sensors collect data from their environment, generating information and raising awareness about context. Example: sensors in an electronic jacket can collect information about changes in external temperature and the parameters of the jacket can be adjusted accordingly
State of the Art of IoT Research Groups 1 MIT Auto-ID Lab & EPC Global. Stanford University Georgia Institute of Technology Cambridge Univ 2 EPFL & ETH Zurich Information and
Communication Systems Research Group Chemnitz University of Technology VSR Group 3 Nokia SAP IBM GOOGLE AMBIENT Metro Group Siemens
Sun Cisco GE State of the Art of IoT The Challenge of IoT Total challenge of IoT 1. Technological Standardization in most areas are still remain fragmented. 2. managing and fostering rapid innovation is a challenge for governments 3. privacy and security 4. Absence of governance
The Challenge of IoT How How to to convincing convincing users users that that the the IoT IoT technology technology will will protect protect their
their data data and and privacy privacy when when tracking tracking Potential Solutions Legal & Regulatory Technical Control
Social Ethic Market Self-regulation IoT and WSN WSN is IoT IoT aka WSN IoT WSN IoT aka RFID + PerCom IoT is not WSN IoT WSN IoT contains WSN IoT WSN IoT and WSN
Things are diverse They might be individual like water, soldiers, trees They also be a set of individuals like ocean, battlefield, forest, IoT and WSN We concern not only about water, tree and soldier, but also about ocean, forest and battlefield. IoT and WSN
So we have ocean monitoring, Forest management, battlefield control. When WSN is Used To Connect digital world and physical world Sensed data
Digital World Sensed data Sensed data Sensed data Sensed data
Sensed data Physical World IoT and CPS CPS C1 C2 Cn
P1 P2 Pn C=C1 C2 Cn C2 C2 Cn P=P1 C2 Cn P2 C2 Cn C2 Cn Cn C2 Cn Pn Internet or Cyber world
IoT IoT and Pervasive Computing CPS and Pervasive Computing All such buzzwords refers to the same balloon. When it is blasted to large size, it is called Smart Planet; when to middle size, it is called CPS; When to small size, it is called pervasive or embedded system. Internet of Things vs. Cloud Properties Internet of Things, Cloud and Services
Internet of Things enables High-resolution management Real-world control Adaptive processes IoT Issue Possible Solution Heterogeneity Services as abstraction layer Application Development
Mash-up of services Solution Deployment Support through XaaS models Producing a lot of data Processing of large data quantities in the cloud IoT, Cloud, and Services are complementary aspects of a Real World Internet 2 Examples
For the public and the society For business and enterprises Example 1: Pachube "The Internet of Things Real-Time Web Service and Applications" Platform to connect sensors and other hardware Platform to build IoT services and applications RESTful APIs After the Fukushima Disaster on Pachube Many People Connected Radiation
Sensors Cool, but Data quality of various sources Accuracy of each data point Sensor reliability and availability Time of measurement Important for trust!
Unit jungle: nGy/s, mSv/h, Sv/h, Bq/kg, cpm Sometimes misleading, sometimes just hard to compare Mix of data sources Real sensors Virtual sensors (data scraping from web pages, e.g., http://www.houshasen-pref-ibaraki.jp/present/result01.html) Business Web A Platform and Marketplace for Business Services The Business Web is a cloud-based business environment that provides access to the necessary infrastructure, applications, content, and connectivity to deliver end-to-end business services optimized for
mobility and ease of participation Business Web: First-class Internet of Things Integration M2M Scenario Ice Cream Cabinets The application provides consumer products companies with detailed information about the location and status of its ice cream cabinets. This information can be used to find these cabinets, supply them with new ice cream in time, and monitor their temperature in order to avoid ice cream becoming bad due
to a defective ice cream cabinet. The ice cream cabinets become smart items that monitor their energy consumption, send alarms, and become an active part in the companies operation processes as well as sustainability efforts. IoT Configuration 2.5 million ice cream cabinets Worldwide distributed Biggest growth markets: China and India Sensing Need to refill
Avoid stock-outs Location Reliably find and refill Temperature / power outage Detect failures and avoid product loss Behavioral statistics Conclude conversion rate Estimated business value: >5% increased sales
IoT Integration into Business Processes Roles and processes 3rd Party Supplier CPG Backend Operational BI on supply chain efficiency User behavior monitoring and campaign efficiency 3rd Party Supplier
Dispatcher: Improved planning of daily logistics processes Get refill priorities and alarms on power outage and temperatures Truck Driver: Guidance and real-time integration into process Store Owner Push alarms to store owners for immediate actions
Resolve power outage / close lid to save energy Consumer Guidance to next ice cream cabinet (source of happiness) Consumer Augmented Reality App: Guide me to the next ice cream opportunity
Business Value Ice Cream Business is a 60+ billion market Highest margin business in food CPG 10.5% Unilever 10+ billion in ice cream sales Market leader in out-of-home ice cream business 30% market share 2/3 is out-of-home business
ICC scenario estimated benefit is 45 million additional profit per year Phase 1: Pilot 500 ICCs in Germany, 50 mobile users Phase 2: 10.000 ICCs in Germany, 1.000 users Phase 3: Replacing 200.000 ICCs yearly world wide.
Short Summary Internet of Things, Cloud Computing and Services are all aspects of a (Future) Internet Strengths of each can and should be combined Examples of successful combinations exist Both in the public and the business domain We are at the beginning of an interesting journey Many challenges still lie ahead Road is Difficult, but Future is Bright
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