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Chapter 3: Network Protocols and Communications Introduction to Networks Presentation_ID 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 1 Chapter 3 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4

Presentation_ID Rules of Communication Network Protocols and Standards Moving Data in the Network Summary 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 2 Chapter 3: Objectives Students will be able to: Explain how rules are used to facilitate communication. Explain the role of protocols and standards organizations in facilitating interoperability in network communications. Explain how devices on a LAN access resources in a

small to medium-sized business network. 3.0.1.1 Presentation_ID 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 3 Network Protocols and Standards Standards Organizations 3.0.1.2 Presentation_ID 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Cisco Confidential 4 The Rules What is Communication? Do animations on buttons on 3.1.1.1 3.1.1.1 Presentation_ID 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 5

The Rules Establishing the Rules Establishing the Rules An identified sender and receiver Agreed upon method of communicating (face-to-face, telephone, letter, photograph) Common language and grammar Speed and timing of delivery Confirmation or acknowledgement requirements Do buttons on 3.1.1.2 3.1.1.2 Presentation_ID 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential

6 The Rules Message Encoding Do animations on buttons on 3.1.1.3 3.1.1.3 Presentation_ID 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 7

The Rules Message Formatting and Encapsulation Example: Personal letter contains the following elements: An identifier of the recipient Do animations on buttons on 3.1.1.4 A salutation or greeting The message content A closing phrase An identifier of the sender 3.1.1.4 Presentation_ID 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Cisco Confidential 8 The Rules Message Size The size restrictions of frames require the source host to break a long message into individual pieces that meet both the minimum and maximum size requirements. This is known as segmenting. Each segment is encapsulated in a separate frame with the address information, and is sent over the network. At the receiving host, the messages are de-encapsulated and put back together to be processed and interpreted. Do animations on buttons on 3.1.1.5 3.1.1.5 Presentation_ID

2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 9 The Rules Message Timing Access Method Flow Control Response Timeout Do buttons on 3.1.1.6 3.1.1.6 Presentation_ID

2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 10 The Rules Message Delivery Options Do animations on buttons on 3.1.1.7 3.1.1.7 Presentation_ID 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential

11 Protocols Rules that Govern Communications 3.2.1.1 Presentation_ID 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 12 Protocols Network Protocols How the message is formatted or structured The process by which networking devices share information

about pathways with other networks How and when error and system messages are passed between devices The setup and termination of data transfer sessions Know the protocols on 3.2.1.3 3.2.1.3 Presentation_ID 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 13 Protocols Interaction of Protocols

Application Protocol Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) Transport Protocol Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) Internet Protocol Internet Protocol (IP) Network Access Protocols Data Link & Physical layers 3.2.2.1 Presentation_ID 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 14 Protocol Suites Protocol Suites and Industry Standards 3.2.2.1 Presentation_ID

2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 15 Protocol Suites Creation of Internet, Development of TCP/IP Do buttons on 3.2.2.2 3.2.2.2 Presentation_ID 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential

16 Protocol Suites TCP/IP Protocol Suite and Communication 3.2.2.3 Presentation_ID Do buttons and animations on 3.2.2.3 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 17 Protocol Suites

TCP/IP Protocol Suite and Communication 3.2.2.4 Presentation_ID Do Drag and drop activity on 3.2.2.4 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 18 Standards Organizations Open Standards The Internet Society (ISOC) The Internet Architecture Board (IAB) The Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)

The International Organization for Standards (ISO) 3.2.3.1 Presentation_ID 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 19 Standards Organizations ISOC, IAB, and IETF 3.2.3.2 Presentation_ID 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Cisco Confidential 20 Standards Organizations IEEE 38 societies 130 journals 1,300 conferences each year 1,300 standards and projects 400,000 members 160 countries IEEE 802.3 IEEE 802.11 3.2.3.3 Presentation_ID

2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 21 Standards Organizations IEEE Important: 802.3 Ethernet 802.11 - Wireless 3.2.3.3 Presentation_ID 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential

22 Standards Organizations ISO Important: This model is our basis for discussing networking! 3.2.3.4 Presentation_ID 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 23

OSI in a Nutshell Know All These! Layer Keyword(s) Device Protocol Data Unit TCP/IP Utilities 7 Application

Web Browser Computer Data FTP, TFTP 6 Presentation common data format Data 5 Session

dialing the phone Data Transport Flow Control Reliability Sequencing Segments Network Routing Path Selection Logical Addressing Router

Packets Ping Trace Route Data Link Frames Media Access Control (MAC) Bridge Switch NIC Frames ARP Physical

Hardware Electricity Light Radio Waves Transceiver Repeater Hub Bits 4 3 2 1 3.2.3.4

Presentation_ID Class Activity hands on OSI model drag and drop 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 24 Standards Organizations Other Standards Organization The Electronic Industries Alliance (EIA) The Telecommunications Industry Association (TIA) The International Telecommunications Union Telecommunications Standardization Sector (ITU-T) The Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN)

The Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) 3.2.3.5 Presentation_ID 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 25 Standards Organizations Activity - Standards Body Scavenger Hunt Do activity 3.2.3.7 in class 3.2.3.7 Presentation_ID

2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 26 Reference Models The Benefits of Using a Layered Model 3.2.4.1 Presentation_ID 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 27 Reference Models

The Benefits of Using a Layered Model Be able to match OSI layers to TCP/ IP model layers 3.2.4.1 Presentation_ID 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 28 Reference Models

The OSI Reference Model Click on buttons 3.2.4.2 3.2.4.2 Presentation_ID 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 29 Reference Models The TCP/IP Reference Model 3.2.4.3

Presentation_ID 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 30 Reference Models Comparing the OSI and TCP/IP Models Be able to match OSI layers to TCP/IP model layers

3.2.4.4 Presentation_ID 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 31 Reference Models Activity Identify Layers and Functions Do the activates on both buttons on 3.2.4.5 3.2.4.5

Presentation_ID 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 32 Reference Models Packet Tracer - Investigating the TCP/IP and OSI Models in Action Do lab 3.2.4.6 For a grade 3.2.4.6 Presentation_ID

2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 33 Data Encapsulation Communicating the Messages Segmenting message benefits Different conversations can be interleaved Increased reliability of network communications Segmenting message disadvantage Increased level of complexity Do buttons and animations on

3.3.1.1 3.3.1.1 Presentation_ID 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 34 Data Encapsulation Protocol Data Units (PDUs) Data Know PDU for each layer!

Segment Packet Frame Bits 3.3.1.2 Presentation_ID 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 35 Data Encapsulation Encapsulation Do animation on 3.3.1.3

3.3.1.3 Presentation_ID 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 36 Data Encapsulation De-encapsulation Do animation on 3.3.1.4 3.3.1.4 Presentation_ID

2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 37 Data Encapsulation Activity Identify the PDU Layer Do Drag and Drop on 3.3.1.5 In class 3.3.1.5 Presentation_ID 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Cisco Confidential 38 Moving Data in the Network Accessing Local Resources 3.3.2.1 Presentation_ID 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 39 Accessing Local Resources Network Addresses & Data Link addresses

Network Address Source IP address Destination IP address Data Link Address Source data link address Destination data link address 3.3.2.1 Presentation_ID 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 40 Accessing Local Resources Communicating with Device / Same Network

3.3.2.2 Presentation_ID 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 41 Accessing Local Resources MAC and IP Addresses R1 192.168.1.1 11-11-11-11-11-11 ARP Request PC1

192.168.1.110 AA-AA-AA-AA-AA-AA S1 R1 Understand ARP protocol! PC2 192.168.1.111 BB-BB-BB-BB-BB-BB Do animation on 3.3.2.3 FTP Server 192.168.1.9

CC-CC-CC-CC-CC-CC 3.3.2.3 Presentation_ID 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 42 Accessing Remote Resources Default Gateway Key concept: Default Gateway 3.3.3.1

Presentation_ID 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 43 Accessing Remote Resources Communicating Device / Remote Network 3.3.3.2 Presentation_ID 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 44

Accessing Remote Resources Packet Tracer - Explore a Network Do this one? Wire shark lab 3.3.3.4 Extra credit? 3.3.3.3 3.3.3.4 Presentation_ID 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 45 Accessing Remote Resources

Using Wireshark to View Network Traffic 3.3.3.4 Presentation_ID 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 46 Network Protocols and Communications Summary In this chapter, you learned: Data networks are systems of end devices, intermediary devices, and the media connecting the devices. For communication to occur, these devices must know how to

communicate. These devices must comply with communication rules and protocols. TCP/IP is an example of a protocol suite. Most protocols are created by a standards organization such as the IETF or IEEE. The most widely-used networking models are the OSI and TCP/IP models. 3.4.1.1 3.4.1.2 Presentation_ID 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 47 Network Protocols and Communications Summary

In this chapter, you learned: Data that passes down the stack of the OSI model is segmented into pieces and encapsulated with addresses and other labels. The process is reversed as the pieces are deencapsulated and passed up the destination protocol stack. The OSI model describes the processes of encoding, formatting, segmenting, and encapsulating data for transmission over the network. The TCP/IP protocol suite is an open standard protocol that has been endorsed by the networking industry and ratified, or approved, by a standards organization. 3.4.1.1 3.4.1.2 Presentation_ID 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 48 Network Protocols and Communications

Summary In this chapter, you learned: The Internet Protocol Suite is a suite of protocols required for transmitting and receiving information using the Internet. Protocol Data Units (PDUs) are named according to the protocols of the TCP/IP suite: data, segment, packet, frame, and bits. Applying models allows individuals, companies, and trade associations to analyze current networks and plan the networks of the future. 3.4.1.1 3.4.1.2 Presentation_ID 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential

49 Presentation_ID 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 50

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