Biochemistry - North East Independent School District

Biochemistry Monomers can be joined together to form polymers when water is removed. This is called Dehydration synthesis.

Polymers can be split into monomers when water is added. This is called Hydrolysis. In Biology, there are 4

important molecules for life, called biomolecules 1. Carbohydrates 2. Lipids 3. Proteins 4. Nucleic Acids

1. Carbohydrates Made of: CHO (carbon, hydrogen, oxygen) Monomer: monosaccharides = 1 sugar Examples: glucose and fructose and galactose

Polymer: polysaccharides= 2 or more sugars Examples: cellulose, starch and glycogen Carbohydrates in your Diet:

Functions: 1. Short-term energy 2. Structural Support Cellulose in plants Chitin in animals (exoskeleton) & fungi 3. Energy storage

Starch (in plants) Glycogen (in animals) Tests (indicators) for Carbohydrates Benedicts solution and HEAT Tests for Glucose

Positive (+)=yellow, orange or red Negative (-) = Blue / no color change Iodine Tests for Starch Positive (+) = blue/black Negative (-) = yellow/brown

2. Lipids Made of: CHO (Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen) Lipids are NOT polymers. Structure: They are made of glycerol and fatty acids.

Looks like: Glycerol 3 Fatty Acids

2 types of Fatty Acids Saturated- saturated with Hydrogen atoms Unsaturated- not saturated with

Hydrogen because of double bond Ex. Fats, oils, waxes, steroids Not soluble in water!! Functions of the lipids: 1.Long-term energy

2.Insulation 3.Protection 4.Prevent water loss 5.Send chemical messages (steroids) 6.Makes up cell membrane 1. Phospholipids

Hydrophilic- waterloving Hydrophobic- waterfearing Tests (indicators) for Lipids Sudan III Positive (+)= red Negative (-) = no color change

Brown Paper Bag Positive (+) = translucent spot Negative (-) = no change 3. Proteins Made of:

CHON - Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, and Nitrogen MonomerAmino Acid 20 different types depending on

R-groups Polymer polypeptide Shape determines the proteins function Held together by hydrogen bonds called peptide bonds.

Functions: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Transport (hemoglobin) Regulate organs (hormones) Form muscles Structure (hair & nails) Control chemical reactions (enzymes)

6. Fight disease (antibodies) Sources of Protein Meats Beans Nuts

Eggs Tests (indicators) for Proteins Biuret Positive (+)= clear purple Negative (-) = light blue/no color change

4. Nucleic Acids Made of: CHONP - Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, Nitrogen, and Phosphorous Monomers Nucleotide (3 parts) 1. Sugar

2. Base 3. Phosphate group 2 types of Polymer: DNA and RNA

Function: Stores & transmits genetic information Tests for Nucleic Acids Not applicable!

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