Assimilation of Natives Treaties, Indian Act, and Residential Schools Aboriginal Title and Immigration By the mid-nineteenth century, the fur trade had declined, more European immigrants arrived, and the economy began to change
from one based on settlement and agriculture. Aboriginal Title and Immigration Key term: Ethnocentrism- the belief that your own cultures way of doing things is normal and correct
Key Term: Treaties- a formally concluded and ratified agreement between countries Aboriginal Title and Immigration After its acquisition of Ruperts Land and the North-Western Territory, the Canadian government became anxious to increase
Canadas population and, in particular, to establish agricultural settlements across West With the goal of opening more land for immigrant farmers, the Canadian government began to use treaties to extinguish First Nations title to the land and resources upon which they had traditionally lived
Mtis and Inuit Peoples The Canadian government focused its treaty negotiations and legislation on First Nations, in part because First Nations people were the majority of the population across the West
The government tended to treat Mtis people as though they would either assimilate into Euro-Canadian culture or join First Nations The Numbered Treaties Between 1871 and 1921, the Government of Canada entered into eleven treaties with First Nations across the West
These treaties, known as the Numbered Treaties, covered vast areas of present-day northern Ontario, Manitoba, Saskatchewan, Alberta, and parts of British Columbia, Yukon, and the Northwest Territories The Numbered Treaties
Over time, First Nations that were not present at the original treaty signings or that initially refused to sign a treaty were added at a later date This type of change is known as a treaty adhesion
Indian Act, 1876 What is the Indian Act? The Indian Act dealt with INDIAN status, local government and the management of reserve land.
The act defined who was an "Indian" and contained certain legal rights and legal disabilities for registered Indians Indian Act of 1876 Three main goals: 1. To assimilate First Nations people through enfranchisement
2. To manage First Nations communities and their reserves 3. To define who could and could not be classified as a First Nations person (status) Assimilation and Control The goal of assimilation was highly Eurocentric: it reflected a worldview in which
European-based cultures and traditions are viewed as superior to other cultures and traditions. Assimilation and Control Government at the time believed: - The best future for First Nations would be to give
up their own cultures in favour of Europeanbased traditions Assimilation and Control The government had the power to make changes to the act WITHOUT consolation with or obtaining permission from First Nations Assimilation and
Control Key Term: Paternalism is the policy or practice of governing a group of people by providing for their needs without giving them any rights Main Provisions of the Indian Act 1. First Nations people were treated as minors or
children and would not have the same right of citizenship as Canadian citizens Main Provisions of the Indian Act 2. First Nations leadership and government traditions were discouraged Main Provisions of the Indian Act 3. Defined who had Indian status A person who
belonged to a band that lived on a reserve or lands that the government had granted Main Provisions of the Indian Act 4. First Nations people who obtained a university degree, joined the military, or became a member of the clergy were forced to give up their status Main Provisions of the
Indian Act 5. The government controlled sale and rent of reserve lands Reserve lands could not be taxed and could only be sold to the government Facts Children were required to attend residential schools, which were boarding schools for First Nations children
Kill the Indian in the child Facts The manufacture, sale, or consumption of alcohol on reserves was prohibited First Nation traditions and ceremonies were
banned Indian Agents Key Term: Indian Agents Federal government employees who had the authority to manage reserves and enforce the Indian Act provisions. The Aim of Residential
Schools Advocated separating Aboriginal youth from their families and reserves to encourage them to adopt European ways of life Residential Schools In 1920, a change to the Indian Act made it
compulsory for First Nations youth to attend residential schools Residential Schools Children as young as six were transported away from their families to residential schools, which were often established at a distance from First Nations communities to remove students from their families influence.
Residential Schools In the schools, children were separated from their siblings, given European-style clothing, and allowed to speak English only Residential Schools
If First Nations youth were caught speaking their traditional language or talking to family members, they were punished Residential Schools By discouraging First Nations languages, educators hoped that the oral stories providing the foundation of First Nations cultures would die
Role of the Church The churches believed they were acting in the best interest of First Nations children and helped to further the governments assimilation goals Role of the Church Because residential schools were operated by churches,
many teachers were priests, nuns, or ministers Lessons focused on four subject areas: 1. Reading 2. Writing 3. Mathematics 4. Christian faith
Residential Schools Many students were punished, abused (emotionally, physically, sexually, and mentally), and deprived of their heritage and culture Many students were deprived of food and water, being forced to do additional chores
Many never received a formal education Residential Schools The last government funded residential school closed in 1996
After several years of being in school, many students had trouble speaking their traditional language and found it difficult to communicate with their families and community members Apology and Reconciliation
On June 11, 2008, Prime Minister Stephen Harper issued a statement of apology on behalf of the Government of Canada for the residential school system In recent years, many post secondary institutes offer Aboriginal education courses and in fact make it mandatory for U of M education students to complete 6 credit hours (2 courses)
in Aboriginal education in order to receive their certificate Louis Riel The founder of the province of Manitoba Leader of the Mtis
Louis Riel He led two resistance movements against the Canadian government His goal was to preserve Mtis rights and culture as their homelands in the Red River and Northwest
He is regarded by many today as a Canadian hero Louis Riel The first resistance was the Red River Rebellion of 1869-1870
He established a provisional government, which are generally unelected and are set up to void against large government decisions (Ex. Indian Act) Louis Riel & Red River Rebellion Government surveyors wanted to survey the land into
large squares ending their traditional narrow river farms Riel stopped the Cdn government surveyors who came to Red River to measure the land Louis Riel & NorthWest Resistance
The second resistance was the North-West resistance in 1884-1885 Louis Riel & NorthWest Resistance The Battle of Batoche Mtis forces were forced to fight off Canadian forces in order to defend their provisional government that set out a list of Mtis rights
After three days, the Mtis and First Nations had run out of ammunition and were forced to surrender Aftermath of the Resistance Families lost their communities, they found
their homes and farms trampled and burned Aftermath of the Resistance The loss of their husbands, fathers, brothers, homes, livestock, food supplies, and transportation caused many hardships for years to come
Aftermath of the Resistance Riel surrendered to government troops on May 15,1885 Therefore, the resistance was officially over
Aftermath of the Resistance The Canadian government tried 71 Mtis and First Nations people for treason-felony, 12 for murder, and one, Riel, for high treason Key Term: Treason - the crime of betraying
one's country, by attempting to kill the sovereign or overthrow the government The Trial of Louis Riel On July 6, 1885, in Regina, Riel was charged with high treason for his role during the resistance
The Trial of Louis Riel Riels lawyers argued for a 12 person jury, with 6 English speaking members and 6 Frenchspeaking members They also argued for the trail to be moved to Manitoba, where they believed more jurors could be found who would sympathize with
Riels cause The Verdict The jury found Riel guilty of high treason, which carried an automatic death penalty Riel was hanged in Regina on November 16,
1885 Mtis Life After 1885 Mtis people had no choice but to live on public land, including road allowances owned by the federal government
Road Allowances: form the boarders between surveyed sections of land and may be used as public pathways Mtis Life After 1885 Small shanty communities built of discarded lumber or logs sprang up
In some places, Mtis people became known as Road-Allowance People Mtis Marginalization Mtis who were not landowners or taxpayers were denied many rights and services offered to other residents
For example, Mtis children were sent to residential schools
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