Alcohols and Phenol - Belle Vernon Area School District
Alcohols and Phenol Chapter 4 Bonding Covalent bonds can be either polar or non polar Polar covalent bonds with equal sharing of e-s
Non-Polar covalent bonds with unequal sharing of e-s Non-Polar Bonds Always form nonpolar molecules Equal distribution of electrons No charged areas
Polar Bonds In symmetrical molecules nonpolar molecules Bonds are equidistant from each other if symmetric In unsymmetrical molecules polar molecules
Charged areas due to uneven edistribution Polar Bonds + - H Cl Attractive Forces in Molecules
Nonpolar molecules are held together by LDF (attractions between temporary dipoles and induced dipoles) Induced dipoles temporary dipoles formed by the attraction of one atoms nucleus for another atoms e-s
Polar Molecules are held together by either Dipole-Dipole attractions Attraction between oppositely charged poles on 2 polar molecules Hydrogen Bonds (very strong dipoledipole) The attraction between the + charges
H on one dipole and the charged highly e-neg element in the polar molecule. Strength Order of strength H-Bond>dipole-dipole>LDF Functional Groups
Both alcohols and phenol contain OH OH Hydroxyl group Alcohol General Formula = ROH Phenol General Formula = ArOH The Difference The difference between alcohols and phenol is the O
added to make the OH group Results in 3 differences The Difference 1. Alkanes = nonpolar molecules with LDF Alcohols = have polar areas and H Bonding C C C O H
- + Nonpolar Region The Difference 2. Alkanes cannot dissolve in H2O while shorter (2-5 Cs) alcohols can 3. Alcohols have higher
boiling points that their corresponding alkanes The Difference C = -162 C C-OH = 64.5 C C-C = -88.5 C C-C-OH = 78.3 C C-C-C = 0 C C-C-C-OH = 118 C The Difference
1 alcohol hydroxyl group on 1 C C-C-C-OH 2 alcohol hydroxyl group on 2 C C-C-C OH 3 alcohol hydroxyl group on 3 C C C-C-C OH
Naming Alcohols 1. Drop e from the alkane & add ol 2. # from end closest to OH & add the # in front of the mainchain 3. The OH has priority over other functional groups covered
Name the following & write the condensed formula C-C-C-OH C-OH OH C-C-C-C-C-C-C OH
React ethylfluoride with water (str,cond, name product) Preparation of Alcohols (still 1) b.) Alkyl + metal alcohol + metal halide hydroxide
halide RX + M+OH- ROH + MX (M Can be Li+,Na+,or K+) Practice Form Heptanol (str and Cond) (you can choose any of the 3 metals Na is most common)
C-C-C-C-C-C-C-Cl + NaOH C-C-C-C-C-C-C-OH + NaCl CH3(CH2)5CH2Cl + NaOH CH3(CH2)5CH2OH + NaCl Practice React methyl bromide with potassium hydroxide
Synthesize Synthesize to form an organic compound from the pure hydrocarbon (usually needs more than one step) Synthesis of a 1 Alcohol requires 2 steps 1. RH + Cl2 RCl + HCl 2. RCl + H2O (or NaOH) ROH + HCl Na could be Li or K
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