3. Information Processing and response - St Johns PE A-Level

3. INFORMATION PROCESSING AND RESPONSE Contents Information Processing Welfords Model Whitings Model Perception Memory Improving memory retention Response Reaction time Psychological Refractory period Hicks Law Schema Information Processing Stimulus Identificati on Response Selection

Response Programmi ng Picking out cues from the environment Decision making based upon experience Movement communicated to muscles to put into action Welfords Model Display Sense Organs

Perception Effector Mechanis m Intrinsic Feedback Extrinsic Feedback Muscular System Response Whitings Model Perceptual mechanism Sensory Input Translator mechanism Decision Process Effector mechanism Action Perception

Sensory Input Vision, Hearing and Proprioception (Touch, Equilibrium and Kinaesthesis) Selective Attention Relevant information is filtered away from the irrelevant Player is then left with only important information to concentrate on. Relevant information is coded- all subsequent decisions are made on this information alone Selective attention DCR Detection- registering the stimulus by the sense organ

Comparison- referring stimulus to the memory store to be compared against stored stimuli Recognition- Finding the corresponding stimuli in the memory Memory Short Term Sensory Store Short Term Memory Store Long Term Memory Store Selective attention process. Coded information reaches STMS

Permanent Receives information for less than 1 second Information coded or discarded Retains information for 20 30 seconds Capacity of 7 +/-2 items Unlimited capacity Stored as Motor programmes Two way relationship between Short Term Memory Store and Long Term Memory StoreAids decision making process using past experiences Improving Memory retention Practice- refines motor programmes Praise and reinforcement as we remember pleasant experiences

Mental Rehearsal- Stimulates brain and muscles Demonstrations needs to be clear and accurate Chunking- Information broken down in smaller parts Chaining- Presenting the information in correct order so links can be made Response Reaction Time Presentation of Stimulus to onset of movement Reaction Time Respon se Time Moveme nt Time Movement Time

Onset of movement to completion of movement Response Time Presentation of stimulus to completion of movement Reaction Time Simple Reaction time Choice Reaction time There is only one stimulus and one response Responding to several stimuli each requiring a different response Stimuli Only Psychological refractory period

are processed along a single nerve one can be processed at a time Short Corner Stimuli must wait for previous one to be dealt with Known as Single Channel Hypothesis Cruyff Turn Psychological Refractory period is based on SCH Trick Pass Unavoidable - delay if a second stimulus is presented before previous is processed

Ball clipping the net / deflection on a shot / Dummy pass / Set plays Fake Punt Dummy Runners Stimulus 1 Stimulus 2 PRP Response 1 Response Zidane 2 RVP Schema Information stored in LTM that updates and modifies motor programmes - Suggests we havent created a specific pattern for every individual situation but rather have a Schema for it 1. 2.

3. 4. Initial conditions- Information is gained from the environment e.g. Player sees the game situation around them Response selections- Appropriate response is decided upon as a result of initial conditions e.g. Player decides type of pass and to which player Sensory consequences- Player gathers information to help adjust the response e.g. Player senses how far away the player is and how the pass feels Response outcomes- Player receives information on success of skill e.g. Pass is successful and player recognises this Recall Schema Produces movement Recognition schema Judges movement How can a coach encourage schema to be developed?

Open and Closed loop control Open Loop Closed Loop Simple, well learnt skills Ongoing movements Automatic (Autonomous phase) Only part of info sent to organs Quickly completed Remaining is sent during performance Closed and self paced skills Tennis Serve / Discus throw Motor Control Mechanism

Motor Commands Movement Kinaesthetic awareness Riding a bike/ Complex dive Motor Control Mechanism Kinaesthetic feedback Motor Commands Movement

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